The Arquillian Drone 2 extension for Arquillian provides a simple way to include functional tests for an application with a web-based user interface.

Arquillian Drone 2 brings the power of WebDriver into the Arquillian framework. WebDriver serves as a language to communicate with the browser, by filling the forms, navigating the pages and validating their content.

Compared with its predecessor Arquillian Drone 1, it offers new features and tools as part of the SPI as well as multiple life cycle scopes of @Drone points as part of the API.

1. Why should I use Arquillian Drone instead of plain WebDriver?

There are many reasons why you want to do that, the most important being:

  • Life cycle management of the browser

  • Interaction with deployments and containers provided by Arquillian

  • Simple usage of multiple browsers in a single test

  • Configuration kept on a single place, outside of the Java code

  • Fully compatible with the IDE

  • Integration with mobile based browsers testing (Arquillian Droidium)

  • Integration of JavaScript test suite execution (Arquillian QUnit)

  • Compatible with WebDriver (Selenium 2) and Selenium Grids

If you are still not convinced that Arquillian Drone matches your needs, you might have a look at Arquillian Graphene 2, which is a wrapper on top of WebDriver, goes one step further and provides you a convenient way how to write tests for rich AJAX UIs with an ease, injections for Page Objects and Page Fragments and much more.

2. Getting Started

2.1. See It in Action

The following example illustrates how Arquillian Drone can be used with WebDriver:

@RunWith(Arquillian.class)
public class WebDriverTest {

    static final String USERNAME = "demo";
    static final String PASSWORD = "demo";

    @ArquillianResource
    URL contextPath;

    @Drone
    WebDriver driver;

    /**
     * Creates a testing WAR of using ShrinkWrap
     *
     * @return WebArchive to be tested
     */
    @Deployment(testable = false)
    public static WebArchive createDeployment() {
        return Deployments.createDeployment();
    }

    @Test
    @InSequence(1)
    public void login() {
        LoginPage page = new LoginPage(driver, contextPath);
        page.login(USERNAME, PASSWORD);
    }

    @Test
    @InSequence(2)
    public void logout() {
        LoginPage page = new LoginPage(driver, contextPath);
        page.logout();
    }
}

Notice here that the Arquillian Drone test looks similar to an Arquillian test. There is @RunWith(Arquillian.class) runner, a @Deployment method and a few @Test methods. The only new elements are @ArquillianResource, which is here used to inject the URL of the deployed application and @Drone, which injects a WebDriver browser, managed for you as described in Life Cycle Scopes of @Drone points

Even when using JUnit, Arquillian allows you to force method execution order via the @InSequence annotation. Arquillian Drone is obviously compatible with TestNG as well.

The testable=false argument for deployment forces Arquillian to run in client mode, that is not inside of the server where the application is deployed. 

All Drone tests must run in client mode. If you need to combine tests running inside of the server as well as on the client using single deployments, mark the deployment as testable=true and force client execution via the @RunAsClient annotation on every client @Test method.

More details are listed in Arquillian Documentation test run modes.

For the completeness of the code, here are the deployment methods as well as the LoginPage abstraction:

public class LoginPage {

    private static final By LOGGED_IN = By.xpath("//li[contains(text(),'Welcome')]");
    private static final By LOGGED_OUT = By.xpath("//li[contains(text(),'Goodbye')]");

    private static final By USERNAME_FIELD = By.id("loginForm:username");
    private static final By PASSWORD_FIELD = By.id("loginForm:password");

    private static final By LOGIN_BUTTON = By.id("loginForm:login");
    private static final By LOGOUT_BUTTON = By.id("loginForm:logout");

    private final WebDriver driver;
    private final URL contextPath;

    public LoginPage(WebDriver driver, URL contextPath) {
        this.driver = driver;
        this.contextPath = contextPath;
    }

    public void login(String name, String password) {
        driver.get(contextPath + "home.jsf");
        driver.findElement(USERNAME_FIELD).sendKeys(USERNAME);
        driver.findElement(PASSWORD_FIELD).sendKeys(PASSWORD);
        driver.findElement(LOGIN_BUTTON).click();
        Assert.isTrue("User is logged in.", driver.findElement(LOGGED_IN).isDisplayed());
    }

    public void logout() {
        driver.findElement(LOGOUT_BUTTON).click();
        Assert.isTrue("User is not logged in", driver.findElement(LOGGED_OUT).isDisplayed(), "User is logged out");
    }
}
public class Deployments {

   public static WebArchive createDeployment() {

        WebArchive war = ShrinkWrap.create(WebArchive.class)
                // add classes
                .addClasses(Credentials.class, LoggedIn.class, Login.class, User.class, Users.class)
                // add configuration
                .addAsResource("META-INF/persistence.xml", "META-INF/persistence.xml")
                .addAsWebInfResource(new File("src/test/webapp/WEB-INF/beans.xml"))
                .addAsWebInfResource(new File("src/test/webapp/WEB-INF/faces-config.xml"))
                // add pages
                .addAsWebResource(new File("src/test/webapp/index.html"))
                .addAsWebResource(new File("src/test/webapp/home.xhtml"))
                .addAsWebResource(new File("src/test/webapp/template.xhtml"))
                .addAsWebResource(new File("src/test/webapp/users.xhtml"))
                .setWebXML(new File("src/test/webapp/WEB-INF/web.xml"));

        return war;
    }
}

You need to put following configuration to the pom.xml file of your project:

<dependencyManagement>
    <dependencies>
        <!-- Arquillian Core dependencies -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.jboss.arquillian</groupId>
            <artifactId>arquillian-bom</artifactId>
            <version>${version.org.jboss.arquillian}</version>
            <type>pom</type>
            <scope>import</scope>
        </dependency>
        <!-- Arquillian Drone dependencies and WebDriver/Selenium dependencies -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.jboss.arquillian.extension</groupId>
            <artifactId>arquillian-drone-bom</artifactId>
            <version>${version.org.jboss.arquillian.drone}</version>
            <type>pom</type>
            <scope>import</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</dependencyManagement>

<dependencies>
    <!-- To use Arquillian Graphene (2) -->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.jboss.arquillian.graphene</groupId>
        <artifactId>graphene-webdriver</artifactId>
        <version>${version.org.jboss.arquillian.graphene2}</version>
        <type>pom</type>
        <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
</dependencies>
You can use graphene-webdriver dependency chain even if you are willing to use plain WebDriver. Graphene will just bring you more goodies but it does not force you to change a single line of your code

Nevertheless, if you still don’t want to add the Graphene dependencies and just use the plain WebDriver, use this Drone dependency chain:

<dependencies>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.jboss.arquillian.extension</groupId>
        <artifactId>arquillian-drone-webdriver-depchain</artifactId>
        <version>${version.org.jboss.arquillian.drone}</version>
        <type>pom</type>
        <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
</dependencies>

3. Automatic Download

Drone provides a functionality of automatic download of some binaries such as browser webdriver and Selenium Server jar. Which binaries and which features are supported can be found in tables below.

3.1. How it works?

Let say that I want to use Chrome for my UI tests. First of all, Drone checks if the path to the webdriver binary isn’t already set. In this case it would check a system property webdriver.chrome.driver; if this is empty then it checks arquillian.xml property: chromeDriverBinary. In case that both properties are empty, then the automatic download comes up.

Now we have several options how to specify which binary should be downloaded and where it should be stored. For storage purposes cache directories $HOME/.arquillian/drone/subdirectory_specific_to_binary are used so the binaries are not downloaded over and over again.

3.1.1. Version

Using the property

<property name="chromeDriverVersion">2.10</property>

you can define which version of the Chrome webdriver should be downloaded. The binary is then cached in a directory $HOME/.arquillian/drone/chrome/2.10/.

3.1.2. URL

Using the property

<property name="chromeDriverUrl">http://url/to/chrome/webdriver </property>

you can define which url the Chrome webdriver should be downloaded from. The directory where it is stored depends if you also specify the version of this binary or not. In case you use also the before-mentioned property chromeDriverVersion then it is cached in corresponding directory $HOME/.arquillian/drone/chrome/specified_version/; otherwise it is downloaded into $project.directory/target/drone/downloaded/ so no cache is used.

3.1.3. Latest

In case that you don’t define any property then Drone finds the latest version of the given binary and downloads this one. The binary (in case of Chrome webdriver) is cached at $HOME/.arquillian/drone/chrome/latest_version/.

3.1.4. Properties, directory names and support of latest versions

Explanatory notes:

System property - intended to be used as a system property to define a path to a binary

arquillian.xml property - intended to be used as a property used in arquillian.xml file to define a path to a binary

Resolution of latest version supported - if the latest version is resolved when no property is defined

Version driver property - use this arquillian.xml property to define version of the binary that should be downloaded/used

Url driver property - use this arquillian.xml property to define an URL the binary should be downloaded from

Cache subdirectory - name of the sub-directory (withing $HOME/.arquillian/drone/) the binaries are cached in

Selenium Server

System property

selenium.server.binary.path

arquillian.xml property

seleniumServerBinary

Resolution of latest version supported

yes

Version driver property

seleniumServerVersion

Url driver property

seleniumServerUrl

Cache subdirectory

selenium-server

Gecko driver (Firefox)

System property

webdriver.gecko.driver

arquillian.xml property

firefoxDriverBinary

Resolution of latest version supported

yes

Version driver property

firefoxDriverVersion

Url driver property

firefoxDriverUrl

Cache subdirectory

firefox

Chrome driver

System property

webdriver.chrome.driver

arquillian.xml property

chromeDriverBinary

Resolution of latest version supported

yes

Version driver property

chromeDriverVersion

Url driver property

chromeDriverUrl

Cache subdirectory

chrome

Edge driver

System property

webdriver.edge.driver

arquillian.xml property

edgeDriverBinary

Resolution of latest version supported

yes

Version driver property

edgeDriverVersion

Url driver property

edgeDriverUrl

Cache subdirectory

edge

IE driver

System property

webdriver.ie.driver

arquillian.xml property

ieDriverBinary

Resolution of latest version supported

yes

Version driver property

ieDriverVersion

Url driver property

ieDriverUrl

Cache subdirectory

internetExplorer

PhantomJS

System property

phantomjs.binary.path

arquillian.xml property

phantomjsBinary

Resolution of latest version supported

yes

Version driver property

phantomjsBinaryVersion

Url driver property

phantomjsBinaryUrl

Cache subdirectory

phantomjs

Opera driver

System property

webdriver.opera.driver

arquillian.xml property

operaDriverBinary

Resolution of latest version supported

no

Version driver property

operaDriverVersion (only in combination with url)

Url driver property

operaDriverUrl

Cache subdirectory

opera

Safari driver

System property

-

arquillian.xml property

-

Resolution of latest version supported

no

Version driver property

-

Url driver property

no

Cache subdirectory

-

We are not supporting Automatic downloading for safari & Download webdriver from a specific URL due to following reasons:

  • Automatic Downloading for Safari:
    Starting with Safari 10 on OS X El Capitan and macOS Sierra, Safari comes bundled with a new driver implementation that’s maintained by the Web Developer Experience team at Apple. Safari’s driver is launchable via the /usr/bin/safaridriver executable, and most client libraries provided by Selenium will automatically launch the driver this way without further configuration. Safari-10

  • Download Webdriver from a specific URL:
    Starting with Selenium 2.48.0, you must manually install the SafariDriver browser extension. Refer getting started section from SafariDiver

GitHub release caching functionality caches GitHub responses based on the last modification date from the returned response header guarding against exceeding GitHub rate limit for unauthorized requests.

3.2. Activate / Deactivate

The automatic download functionality is activated by default; if you want to set it off use the property:

<property name="downloadBinaries">false</property>

and no binary will be downloaded.

3.3. Selenium Server

Apart from the fact that the Selenium Server binary is automatically downloaded, in the case of @RemoteWebDriver@ it is also automatically started with the correct parameters (path to the webdriver that should be used).

So, if you use RemoteWebDriver Drone checks the address specified using property remoteAddress in arquillian.xml file (default is: http://localhost:4444/wd/hub) and if the address is not accessible (there isn’t running anything) then it automatically starts selenium server instance on the given address.

For example I’d like to use RemoteWebDriver with the browser Firefox and without specifying any custom remote address, then the Selenium Server would be started using command:

java -Dwebdriver.gecko.driver=target/…​/geckodriver -jar target/…​/selenium-server-standalone-3.4.0.jar -port 4444

In case you would like to add some additional selenium server arguments to the command, you can use parameter seleniumServerArgs in your arquillian.xml file. For example, if you used these properties:

<property name="seleniumServerArgs">-debug true -role node -browserTimeout 1000</property>
<property name="browser">firefox</property>

then the command used for starting Selenium Server instance would look like:

java -Dwebdriver.gecko.driver=target/…​/geckodriver -jar target/…​/selenium-server-standalone-3.4.0.jar -port 4444 -debug true -role node -browserTimeout 1000

4. Supported Frameworks And Their Versions

The following frameworks are supported and tested with the latest version of Arquillian Drone. Drone type is the type you can inject via the @Drone annotation.

Framework Name Drone Type Tested Version

WebDriver

ChromeDriver
FirefoxDriver
HtmlUnitDriver
InternetExplorerDriver
PhantomJSDriver
OperaDriver
RemoteDriver
WebDriver

2.53.1

Arquillian Graphene

WebDriver

2.1.0.Final

It is not required to use Arquillian Drone with the exact version we certified. You can override versions via <dependencyManagement>, as explained in the Arquillian FAQ.

If you are in doubt what to use for a newly created project, Arquillian team recommends you to start with Graphene, which is based on WebDriver, however brings you a lot of AJAX goodies.

5. Maven Setup Example

Adding an Arquillian Drone dependency can be divided into two parts:

  1. Adding a Bill of Materials (BOM) into the dependency section for both Arquillian and Arquillian Drone. This step ensures that Maven will fetch the correct version of all dependencies.

  2. Adding a Dependency Chain dependency. This greatly simplifies the entry point as you only need to add a single dependency. All transitive dependencies, like the version of Selenium, will be fetched for you automatically.

The order in the <dependencyManagement> section matters. The first version defined takes precedence. By listing Arquillian BOM before Arquillian Drone BOM, you encore Drone to use latest Arquillian Core.

As for the first step, this is the same for all supported Drones:

<properties>
    <version.org.jboss.arquillian>1.1.13.Final</version.org.jboss.arquillian>
    <version.org.jboss.arquillian.drone>2.1.0</version.org.jboss.arquillian.drone>
    <version.org.jboss.arquillian.graphene>2.2.0</version.org.jboss.arquillian.graphene>
</properties>

<dependencyManagement>
    <dependencies>
        <!-- Arquillian Core dependencies -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.jboss.arquillian</groupId>
            <artifactId>arquillian-bom</artifactId>
            <version>${version.org.jboss.arquillian}</version>
            <type>pom</type>
            <scope>import</scope>
        </dependency>
        <!-- Arquillian Drone dependencies and WebDriver/Selenium dependencies -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.jboss.arquillian.extension</groupId>
            <artifactId>arquillian-drone-bom</artifactId>
            <version>${version.org.jboss.arquillian.drone}</version>
            <type>pom</type>
            <scope>import</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</dependencyManagement>

If you need to use newer Selenium version than the one used by Drone, you can specify selenium-bom in the dependencyManagement part as well.

If you use selenium-bom make sure that it is specified before the arquillian-drone-bom (or also before other BOMs that manage Selenium version) to make the change effective.
Example of Selenium BOM for Selenium 3.0.0-beta3
<dependencyManagement>
    <dependencies>
        ...
        <!-- Selenium BOM -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.jboss.arquillian.selenium</groupId>
            <artifactId>selenium-bom</artifactId>
            <version>3.4.0</version>
            <type>pom</type>
            <scope>import</scope>
        </dependency>
        ...
    </dependencies>
</dependencyManagement>

The latter step differs based on what Drone you want to use. Include one of the following into the <dependencies> section:

To use Arquillian Graphene 2:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.jboss.arquillian.graphene</groupId>
    <artifactId>graphene-webdriver</artifactId>
    <version>${version.org.jboss.arquillian.graphene}</version>
    <type>pom</type>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

To use WebDriver:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.jboss.arquillian.extension</groupId>
    <artifactId>arquillian-drone-webdriver-depchain</artifactId>
    <version>${version.org.jboss.arquillian.drone}</version>
    <type>pom</type>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
WebDriver is a subset of Graphene. You can import Graphene and not to use any of the Graphene features from the start. However, it would be super easy to add them later on.

6. Life Cycle Scopes of @Drone points

Arquillian Drone does not allow you to control the life cycle of web testing framework objects, but it provides three different scopes which should be sufficient for most usages required by developers. These are:

6.1. 1. Class Scoped Life Cycle

For the Drone points with the class scoped life cycle, a configuration for the instance is created before a test class is run. This configuration is used to properly initialize an instance of the tool. The instance is injected into the field and holds until the last test in the test class is finished, then it is disposed. You can think of @BeforeClass and @AfterClass equivalents.

This scope is default scope for the field injection points. If you still want to declare the Drone point to be class-scoped use the annotation @ClassLifecycle.

6.2. 2. Method Scoped Life Cycle

For the Drone points with the method scoped life cycle, an instance is configured and created before Arquillian enters test method and it is destroyed after method finishes. You can think of @Before and @After equivalents.

This scope is a default scope for the method parameter injection points. To declare a field injection point as a method-scoped Drone point use the annotation @MethodLifecycle

6.3. 3. Deployment Scoped Life Cycle

For the Drone points with the deployment scoped life cycle, an instance is configured and created after an Arquillian deployment is deployed and it is destroyed when the deployment is about to be undeployed. You can think of @AfterDeploy and @BeforeUnDeploy equivalents.

To declare any injection point as a deployment-scoped Drone point use the annotation @OperateOnDeployment("deployment_name") with the specified name of the deployment the Drone point should be tied to.

@RunWith(Arquillian.class)
public class EnrichedClass
{
   @Deployment(name = "cool_deployment")
   public static Archive deploy() {
      return ShrinkWrap.create(Archive.class);
   }

   @Drone
   @OperateOnDeployment("cool_deployment")
   WebDriver foo;

   ...
}

It is important to know that you can combine multiple instances in one test and you can have them in different scopes. You can as well combine different framework types. Following example shows class-scoped instance foo and method-scoped instance baz of type WebDriver combined with method-scoped bar of type FirefoxDriver.

@RunWith(Arquillian.class)
public class EnrichedClass
{
   @Drone WebDriver foo;

   @Drone @MethodLifecycle WebDriver baz;

   // this will always retrieve FirefoxDriver, no matter what you specify in arquillian.xml file
   @Test
   public void runThisTestAlwaysWithFirefoxDriver(@Drone FirefoxDriver bar) {
     ...
   }
}

6.3.1. Keeping Multiple Drone Instances Of The Same Field Type

With Arquillian Drone, it is possible to keep more than one instance of a web test framework tool of the same type and determine which instance to use in a type safe way. Arquillian Drone uses the concept of a @Qualifier annotation which you may know from CDI. Drone defines its own @Qualifier meta-annotation which allows you to create your own annotations usable to qualify any @Drone injections. By default, if no @Qualifier annotation is present, Arquillian Drone implicitly uses the @Default qualifier. The following code defines a new qualifying annotation named Different.

Take care to not accidentally import the Qualifier annotation defined by CDI (javax.inject.Qualifier). Drone defines its own meta-annotation of the same name.

package org.jboss.arquillian.drone.example;

import java.lang.annotation.ElementType;
import java.lang.annotation.Retention;
import java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy;
import java.lang.annotation.Target;

import org.jboss.arquillian.drone.api.annotation.Qualifier;

@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Target({ ElementType.FIELD, ElementType.PARAMETER })
@Qualifier
public @interface Different {
}

Once you have defined a qualifier, you can use it in your tests, for example in following way, having two distinct class based life cycle instances of WebDriver.

@RunWith(Arquillian.class)
@RunAsClient
public class EnrichedClass {
   @Drone WebDriver foo;
   @Drone @Different WebDriver bar;


   @Test
   public void testWithBothFooAndBar() {
     ...
   }
}

7. Configuring Drone Instances

Drone instances are automatically configured from arquillian.xml descriptor file or System properties, which take precedence. You can eventually omit the configuration altogether, if you are happy with the default values. Obviously, configurations are compatible with @Qualifier annotations, so you can create a special configuration for a method based life cycle browser if you will.

Extension qualifier must match the value listed in configuration. Otherwise Drone won’t pick the configuration.

The different configuration options supported by Drone are:

7.1. Default Drone Configuration

Drone global configuration is applied for all supported frameworks at the same time. It uses drone extension qualifier.

<extension qualifier="drone">
   <property name="instantiationTimeoutInSeconds">120</property>
</extension>
Property Name Default Value Description

instantiationTimeoutInSeconds

60

Default timeout in seconds to get instance of a browser. Set to 0 if you want to disable the timeout altogether

7.2. WebDriver configuration

WebDriver uses webdriver qualifier.

<extension qualifier="webdriver">
   <property name="browser">firefox</property>
</extension>
Property Name Default Value Description

browser

htmlUnit

Determines which browser instance is created for WebDriver testing.

Following values are valid:

  • chrome

  • chromeHeadless or chromeheadless

  • firefox

  • htmlUnit or htmlunit

  • internetExplorer or internetexplorer

  • opera

  • phantomjs

  • safari

  • edge

iePort

-

Default port where to connect for Internet Explorer driver

remoteAddress

http://localhost:4444/wd/hub

Default address for remote driver to connect

remoteReusable

false

The flag which indicates that remote session should be reused between subsequent executions - gives opportunity to reuse browser window for debugging and/or test execution speed-up.

reuseCookies

false

If you are using remote reusable browser, you can force it to reuse cookies

firefoxExtensions

-

Path or multiple paths to xpi files that will be installed into Firefox instance as extensions. Separate paths using space, use quotes in case that path contains spaces

firefox_profile

-

Path to Firefox Profile to be used instead of default one delivered with FirefoxDriver

firefoxUserPreferences

-

Path to Firefox user preferences. This file will be parsed and values will be applied to freshly created Firefox profile.

htmlUnitWebClientOptions

-

Semicolon separated list of webClientOptions for HtmlUnitDriver. e.g. timeout=10; javaScriptEnabled=true; throwExceptionOnScriptError=false; SSLClientProtocols=protocal1, protocal2

dimensions

-

Dimensions of browser window in widthxheight format. This will resize the window if supported by underlying browser. Useful for phantomjs, which by default defines a very small viewport. If you need the browser in fullscreen mode, use any of the following strings: "full" "fullscreen" "max"

Some additional configuration parameters related to binaries can be found in Properties, directory names and support of latest versions

If you need to enable any browser capability, simply specify it as a property in extension configuration. For instance, if you are running Firefox browser and you want to change the binary location, you can do it via following code:

<extension qualifier="webdriver">
   <property name="firefox_binary">/path/to/firefox</property>
</extension>

We have enabled JavaScript for htmlUnit driver by default. If you want to disable it, configure appropriate capability to false:

<property name="javascriptEnabled">false</property>

WebDriver expects a Java Object stored in Capabilities settings for some of the WebDriver capabilities. Therefore, we provide a simple mappings to text format for some properties described in table below.

Property Name Format

loggingPrefs

Comma separated list of logging levels for FirefoxDriver. Use driver=${value1},profiler=${value2} where value is one of the following: SEVERE, WARNING, INFO, CONFIG, FINE, FINER or FINEST

7.3. Chrome options

Drone provides you a possibility to set chrome options for a chromeDriver through your arquillian.xml file. You can find all possible options that can be set on this web page.

The process of setting options uses a ChromeOptions class which means that the parameter names (used in arquillian.xml) are tightly coupled with the names of the set/add methods defined in the class. Drone expects that the name of each parameter consists of:

chrome + (name of the set/add method of ChromeOption class without first three chars)

the whole string should be in camel case. For example, in case of an option args which is coupled with the method addArguments, the parameter should look like this:

<property name=chromeArguments>--first-argument --second-argument</property>

INFO Please notice that there are two methods named addArguments in the ChromeOptions class, one with a parameter which is a list of strings and second one with an array of strings - Drone treats them as a one single method (for other methods it is applied analogically).


7.3.1. Value formats

  • In the cases, when the value can be an array or list of strings/files, you should specify all of them in one string separated by space (this is also applied for extensions as well as for encoded extensions).

  • It is a little bit different in the case of experimental options. These options should be provided as set of key-value pairs, so we decided to use JSON format for it (can be in multiline format) - for example:

<property name=chromeExperimentalOption>
{
  "perfLoggingPrefs": {
    "traceCategories": ",blink.console,disabled-by-default-devtools.timeline,benchmark"
  },
  "prefs": {
    "download.default_directory": "/usr/local/path/to/download/directory"
  }
}
</property>

7.3.2. Debug

If you struggle with passing required chrome options through the arquillian.xml file, you can use a parameter chromePrintOptions with a value true:

<property name=chromePrintOptions>true</property>

This ensures that Drone prints out the whole content of ChromeOptions in a JSON format to the standard output.

7.4. Graphene 2 Configuration

Graphene 2 reuses configuration specified for WebDriver, using webdriver qualifier. You can additionally use a Arquillian Graphene 2 configuration to set Graphene specific configuration, such as default UI timeouts.

7.5. Selenium Server Configuration

Selenium server is automatically started with the parameter reflecting browser that is used (path to the webdriver). For example, in case that the browser Firefox is used and with default address, then the Selenium Server instance would be started using a command:

java -Dwebdriver.gecko.driver=target/…​/geckodriver -jar target/…​/selenium-server-standalone-3.4.0.jar -port 4444

In case you would like to add some additional selenium server arguments to the command, you can use parameter seleniumServerArgs in your arquillian.xml file. For example, if you used these properties:

<property name="seleniumServerArgs">-debug true -role node -browserTimeout 1000</property>
<property name="browser">firefox</property>

then the command used for starting Selenium Server instance would look like:

java -Dwebdriver.gecko.driver=target/…​/geckodriver -jar target/…​/selenium-server-standalone-3.4.0.jar -port 4444 -debug true -role node -browserTimeout 1000

8. Extended Configuration: Configuring @Qualifier’d Drone Instances

If you are wondering how to define configuration for @Qualifier @Drone instance, it’s very easy. Only modification you have to do is to change qualifier to include - (@Qualifier annotation name converted to lowercase). For instance, if you qualified Arquillian Graphene instance with @MyExtraBrowser, its extension qualifier will become graphene-myextrabrowser.

Arquillian Drone configures your browser using two-step process:

  1. Search for the exact match of qualifier (e.g. graphene-myextrabrowser) in arquillian.xml, if found, step 2 is not performed.

  2. Search for a match of base qualifier, without type safe @Qualifier (e.g. graphene) in arquillian.xml.

Then System property are applied in the same fashion.

9. Skipping creation of @Drone instances

In case you want to skip a creation/injection of @Drone instances you can use a system property arquillian.drone.skip.creation with a value true. This property is checked in a @Before phase, so you can modify the property during the test execution.

10. Arquillian Drone SPI

The big advantage of Arquillian Drone extension is its flexibility. We provide you reasonable defaults, but if they are not sufficient or if they do not fulfill your needs, you can change them. You can change the behavior of existing implementation or implement a support for your own testing framework as well.

10.1. Event Model

Drone itself is not using Arquillian Container related event, which means that it is able to work with Arquillian Standalone test runners. Arquillian Drone itself observes following events:

Arquillian Event Drone Default Action

BeforeSuite

Drone creates a registry with all Drone SPI implementation on the classpath
Drone creates a global configuration
Drone configures Selenium Server
Drone registers all Browser Capabilities implementation on the classpath
Drone creates a registry for session reuse

BeforeClass

Drone creates a configuration and future instance for Drone points with class scoped life cycle

AfterDeploy

Drone creates a configuration and future instance for Drone points with deployment scoped life cycle

Before

Drone creates a configuration for instances with method scoped life cycle
Drone converts a Drone instance callable into a real Drone instance
Drone enhances Drone instances

After

Drone destroys an instance of method scoped Drone points

AfterClass

Drone destroys an instance of class scoped Drone points

BeforeUnDeploy

Drone destroys an instance of deployment scoped Drone points

AfterSuite

Drone destroys Selenium Server instance

Arquillian Drone fires following events you can observe in your extension:

Arquillian Drone fired event When is this event fired?

AfterDroneExtensionConfigured

Fired before the global configuration is prepared

AfterDronePrepared

Fired after Drone configuration and Drone callable instance are created and stored in the context

AfterDroneInstantiated

Fired after Drone instance callable is converted into real Drone instance

AfterDroneEnhanced

Fired after Drone instance is enhanced by an DroneInstanceEnhancer and a window is resized (if requested)

AfterDroneDeenhanced

Fired after Drone instance is deenhanced by an DroneInstanceEnhancer

AfterDroneDestroyed

Fired after Drone instance is destroyed

BeforeDroneExtensionConfigured

Fired before the global configuration is prepared

BeforeDronePrepared

Fired before Drone configuration and Drone callable instance are created

BeforeDroneInstantiated

Fired before Drone instance callable is converted into real Drone instance

BeforeDroneEnhanced

Fired before Drone instance is enhanced by an DroneInstanceEnhancer

BeforeDroneDeenhanced

Fired before Drone instance is deenhanced by an DroneInstanceEnhancer

BeforeDroneDestroyed

Fired before the Drone instance will be destroyed

DroneAugmented

Fired after WebDriver instance is augmented to support more features.

Events provide a class hierarchy, so you can observe their super classes if you want.

10.2. Working with Drone Instances

If you want to support another testing framework and manage it’s lifecycle, you should implement following interfaces and register them in your own Arquillian Extension.

Drone Factory SPI:

  • Configurator<T, C>
    Provides a way how to configure configurations of type C for @Drone object of type T

  • Instantiator<T, C>
    Provides a way how to instantiate @Drone object of type T with configuration C

  • Destructor<T>
    Provides a way how to dispose @Drone object of type T

  • DroneInstanceEnhancer<T>
    Provides a way how to enhance Drone object of type T with additional functionality. All enhancers available on class path and compatible with current Drone type are always applied.

Drone Context SPI:

  • DroneConfiguration
    This is effectively a marker for configuration of type C

  • DronePoint
    An unique description of a Drone in a code.

  • DroneRegistry
    Register of available {{Configurator}}s, {{Instantiator}}s and {{Destructor}}s discovered via SPI.

  • DronePointContext
    A unique holder for configuration, callable instance and metadata of each Drone point.

  • DroneContext
    Holder for all {{DronePointContext}}s and the global configuration.

  • InstanceOrCallableInstance
    Holder for any object in DroneContext. It allows to hold both real instance and callable instance in union like manner. It is also used to hold Drone related configuration, which is always instantiated

Drone WebDriver SPI:

  • BrowserCapabilitiesRegistry
    Container for all registered WebDriver browser capabilities

  • BrowserCapabilities
    Implementation of browser implementation for WebDriver

Implementations of Configurator, Instantiator and Destructor are searched on the class path and they are sorted according to precedence they declare. Default implementation has precedence of 0, so if your implementation has a higher precedence and instantiates the exact type, Arquillian Drone will use it instead of default variant. This provides you the ultimate way how to change behavior if desired. Of course, you can provide support for your own framework in the very same way, so in your test you can use @Drone annotation to inject instances of arbitrary web testing framework.

11. Building the project

Prerequisites:

  • JDK 8 and newer

  • Maven 3.0.3 and newer

11.1. Running test suite

You can use Arquillian Spacelift to gather all the required binaries. Just run:

./gradlew test

This will run tests using multiple Arquillian Core versions and phantomjs browser. In case you want to modify the behavior, you can specify -ParquillianCoreVersions=1.1.12 and -Pbrowser=phantomjs,firefox for instance. This will run integration test using a cross product of Arquillian Core and browsers defined.

Running testsuite this way will modify all pom.xml files in the project. Make sure you have committed all your changes there first.

11.1.1. Manual way to run test suite

Prerequisites:

  • running Selenium Server at port 4444, with paths to binaries required for remote browser execution. If you don’t do it by yourself, Drone will run an instance of Selenium Server automatically. However in this case the server is started and stopped for each test class separately and only in a standalone mode with only one parameter -port that is taken from defined remoteAddress.

    In case you want to specify other arguments to the selenium server, you can do so using the property,

    <property name="seleniumServerArgs">-debug -role hub -browserTimeout 1000</property>

    So, if you are fine with this automatic behavior you can skip this step, otherwise run your Selenium Server.

  • installed web browsers you want to test

  • you might want to align your layout to be the same as paths to binaries specified within arquillian.xml in drone-webdriver module. Alternatively, you can override properties with -Darq.extension.${extensionQualifier}.${propertyName}

Limitations:

  • reusable sessions are not supported by Edge browser therefore related tests are skipped

In order to start Selenium Server, execute:

java -Dphantomjs.binary.path=/path/to/phantomjs.binary -Dwebdriver.ie.driver=/path/to/iedriverserver.binary -jar selenium-server-standalone-3.4.0.jar

Once Selenium Server is running, you can run the tests by:

mvn clean verify -Dbrowser=${browser}

Where browser has the same value as browser property from arquillian.xml you want to tests (e.g. firefox, chrome, phantomjs, internetExplorer, opera, edge, chromeHeadless etc.)

VNC server instance can be used to let all the browsers pop out in separate display. Just prepend both commands with DISPLAY=:${display.number}

11.2. Releasing new version

Run following commands:

mvn clean release:prepare release:perform

Make sure that you push the tag, close all issues with given version in JIRA and mark version as released.